** Academic**

A study reported in 1971 of library instruction involving “approximately 190” students in a general biology class at Earlham College **showed that**there was no statistically significant difference in students’ ability to use the library or in their development of positive attitudes toward the library regardless of whether instruction was presented by a librarian in a 2-hour lecture/demonstration or via a guided self-paced exercise undertaken by individual students. ** (****Source)**

A study reported in 1972 of 174 students at Brigham Young University concerning library instruction **showed that**students provided with audio-taped, programmed instruction scored statistically significantly higher on their instruction post-test than did those students given a written, nonprogrammed instruction document (significance level at .01 or better). Both groups scored statistically significantly higher than the control group (significance level at .01 or better). ** (****Source)**

Ibid…. **showed that**the mean score between pretest and post-test for the audiotaped, programmed instruction method rose from 32% correct answers to 84%, while the mean score for the written, nonprogrammed instruction method rose from 32% to 72%. Both of these increases were statistically significant, while the slight increase in the mean score for the control group was not statistically significant. ** (****Source)**

A 1978 study of freshmen in English courses at Michigan Technological University and the University of Minnesota, Duluth, to compare the effects of bibliographic instruction and instruction techniques (survey size: 1,868; usable: 1,234 with 327 students in the lecture group, 302 in the programmed instruction group, and 605 in the control group) **showed that**students who had received instruction (regardless of method) made statistically significant increases in their scores on a library skills test, while noninstructed students did not. Specifically, instructed students averaged an increase from 19.88 on the pretest to 33.408 on the post-test (significant at the .01 level), while noninstructed students averaged an increase from 19.343 on the pretest to 21.084 on the post-test. ** (****Source)**

A study of the effectiveness of 3 different approaches to the teaching of library skills at the University of Nebraska, Omaha, Spring semester 1978, **showed that**PLATO and a tutorial approach were almost equally effective and resulted in statistically significantly higher test scores on a library skills test than either the noninstructed control group or the group provided with a traditional library tour. However, the average scores for PLATO and tutorial instruction were only 51% and 52% correct, respectively. **(****Source)**

A study reported in 1979 at the Crouch Music Library in Baylor University of the effectiveness of music bibliographic instruction, involving 104 students in 4 groups, **showed that**there was a statistically significant improvement in library skills test scores in 3 of the 4 groups after bibliographic instruction (significant at the .05 level). The fourth group also improved, but the difference in average scores was not statistically significant. ** (****Source)**

A study reported in 1979 **showed that**required completion of a library instruction workbook caused a statistically significant increase in test scores of library use skills [significance level not given; presumed to be .01]. ** (****Source)**

A study reported in 1979 at DePauw University comparing classes receiving bibliographic instruction with classes not receiving such instruction and involving 162 freshman students in English composition courses (133 test subjects receiving instruction; 29 control-group subjects not receiving instruction) **showed that**the pretest/post-test increase in scores on a 20-question library test was .2 for for the control group and 2.7 for the test group. Although the change was not statistically significant for the control group, this was a statistically significant increase for the test group at the .001 significance level. **(****Source)**

Ibid…. **showed that**, of the 133 test group students (those receiving bibliographic instruction), the average increase in pretest/post-test scores was statistically significant regardless of their SAT verbal aptitude scores. Specifically, for those students with an SAT verbal score lower than 500 the average increase was 3.0 points; for students with SAT verbal scores between 500 and 549 the average increase was 2.4 points; and for students with SAT verbal scores of 550 or above the average increase was 3.2 points. All increases were statistically significant at the .001 level. ** (****Source)**

A 1979-80 study at Erindale and Scarborough Colleges (satellite campuses of the University of Toronto, Canada) concerning the effectiveness of course-integrated instruction and a compulsory course-related library assignment in both biology and sociology classes (2 biology classes and 3 sociology classes involving 406 undergraduate students) ** showed that**a compulsory library assignment may be an important element in providing library instruction:

library skills test scores were statistically significantly higher for biology students given instruction and assignment (79.5% correct answers) than for students given neither instruction or assignment (63% correct answers), significant at the .05 level;

library skills test scores were statistically significantly higher for sociology students given instruction and assignment (79.4% correct answers) than for students given neither instruction or assignment (70% correct answers), significant at the .05 level;

library skills test scores were *not *statistically significantly higher for sociology students given instruction but no assignment (72% correct answers) than for sociology students given no instruction and no assignment (70% correct answers). ** (****Source)**

A study in 1980 of library instruction effectiveness over a 3-week period for a group of 43 precollege students at DePauw University **showed that**there was a statistically significant increase in scores on library skills (significant at the .01 level) but no significant change in attitudes toward libraries and librarians. **(****Source)**

Ibid…. **showed that**library instruction alone could have accounted for the gains in library skills. Specifically, there were no statistically significant gains in library skills associated with students’ reading skills, study habits and attitudes, scholastic aptitude, or previous academic achievement. **(****Source)**

A study reported in 1980 at the University of California, Irvine, concerning the effectiveness of 2 videotapes (1 dealing with online bibliographic data base searching; 1 dealing with using the library to write a research paper), involving 24 undergraduates in the experimental group and 26 students in the control group, **showed that**the average pretest and post-test score of the experimental group, which viewed the 2 tapes, increased from 13.00 to 15.04 correct answers (out of a possible 20), while average scores for the control group increased from 12.19 to 12.96 correct answers. This was a statistically significant difference in increase in scores (significant at the .05 level). ** (****Source)**

A study reported in 1982 at DePauw University of 82 seniors who had received formal library instruction as freshmen as well as in subsequent courses **showed that**, of 4 factors expected to predict library use skill scores, exposure to bibliographic instruction was a much better predictor than SAT verbal scores or college GPA. Specifically, the 4 factors together accounted for .389 of the variance (r2), while the variances explained by the individual factors (Beta scores) were as follows:

total number of bibliographic instruction courses taken .367 (Beta)

total number of upper-division courses taken that included bibliographic instruction .262 (Beta)

SAT verbal score .162 (Beta)

GPA .159 (Beta)

The first 2 Beta scores were significant at the .001 level, and the second 2 Beta scores were significant at the .05 level. ** (****Source)**

** Special**

A study reported in 1979 at the Crouch Music Library in Baylor University of the effectiveness of music bibliographic instruction, involving 104 students in 4 groups, **showed that**there was a statistically significant improvement in library skills test scores in 3 of the 4 groups after bibliographic instruction (significant at the .05 level). The fourth group also improved, but the difference in average scores was not statistically significant. ** (****Source)**