A study reported in 1976 of 4 academic libraries in the Southern California area showed thatpatrons almost always chose to approach a standing reference or circulation staff member rather than a seated one if both were exhibiting similar nonverbal behavior.                  (Source)

        Ibid…. showed thatreference personnel exhibited positive nonverbal behavior a higher percentage of the time than circulation desk personnel.                     (Source)

        Ibid…. showed thatpatrons chose to approach a female rather than male staff member in reference or circulation if both were seated or standing or exhibiting similar nonverbal behavior.                         (Source)

A survey in 1978 of circulation staff (including supervisors, clerks, and students) activity at the University of Illinois, Urbana, based on 4,304 random checks of activity during 44 randomly selected days, showed thatover half of the staffs time was spent on 4 activities: 15.4% on patron interaction; 14.8% on discharging; 11.8% on filing; and 9.4% on charging/ renewing.                         (Source)

        Ibid…. showed thatthe activity that accounted for the largest percentage of time for circulation student staff was absenteeism, which involved 26.4% of student staff time.                      (Source)

A 1980 survey of all Association or Research Libraries circulation managers (population: 98; 76 or 78% responding) showed thatcirculation managers had held their positions an average of 5 years, that 38 of the managers were women and 38 were men, and that 70% of the managers held an M.L.S.                  (Source)

        Ibid…. showed thatcirculation managers of manual systems were 43% male vs. 57% male, that managers of batch systems were 54% male vs. 46% female, and that managers of online systems were 55% male vs. 45% female.            (Source)

        Ibid…. showed that57% of responding circulation managers reported spending more than 25% of their time on noncirculation concerns, while 23% reported spending over 50% of their time on noncirculation matters.            (Source)

Dr. David Kohl

 "Libraries in the digital age are experiencing the most profound transformation since ancient Mesopotamian scribes first began gathering and organizing cuneiform tablets."

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